In addition to the words they included in their article, I looked up some more via BuzzFeed, MentalFloss, and Better Than English, and decided to share a few that I'd like to add to my vocabulary.
Ayurnamat (Inuit): The philosophy that there is no point in worrying about events that cannot be changed.
Hikikomori (Japanese): A teenager or young adult who has no social life and is often obsessed with watching television and playing video games.
Plotka-macher (Yiddish): A gossipy troublemaker.
Yuputka (Ulwa): The phantom sensation of something crawling on your skin.
Nito-onna (Japanese): A woman who is so dedicated to her career that she has no time to iron her blouses, so she resorts to only wearing knitted tops.
Photos from: 22 Words